Schemas & Vocabularies

Below we provide a list of RDF schemas and vocabularies which are used in educational contexts, e.g. to describe educational resources and domain-specific aspects.

/ BOWLOGNA ONTOLOGY
The Bowlogna ontology originates from a lexicon defining terms related to the Bologna Process and aims at providing a standard schema for European universities involved in the Bologna Reform of higher-education studies.

/ ACADEMIC INSTITUTION INTERNAL STRUCTURE ONTOLOGY (AIISO)
The Academic Institution Internal Structure Ontology (AIISO) provides a schema to describe the internal organizational structure of an academic institution. AIISO is designed to work in partnership with the Participation schema, FOAF and AIISO-Roles to describe the roles that people play within an institution. Together with the resource list ontology it is used withing Talis Aspire to describe university courses and resources.

/ DISCOURSE RELATIONSHIPS VOCABULARY 
The Discourse Relationships vocabulary provides a basic ontology to model (academic) discourse, and can be used to describe the discursive relationships of educational and academic resources.

/ ReSIST COURSEWARE ONTOLOGY 
The ReSIST Courseware Ontology represents the various educational courses and resources within the ReSIST project.

/ CiTO – CITATION TYPING ONTOLOGY
CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for the characterization of citations, both factually and rhetorically. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ FaBiO – FRBR-ALIGNED BIBLIOGRAPHIC ONTOLOGY
FaBiO, the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology, is an ontology for recording and publishing on the Semantic Web bibliographic records of scholarly endeavours. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ DoCO – DOCUMENT COMPONENTS ONTOLOGY
DoCO, the Document Components Ontology, is an ontology for describing the component parts of a bibliographic document. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ BiRO – BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE ONTOLOGY
BiRO, the Bibliographic Reference Ontology, is an ontology for describing bibliographic records and references, and their compilation into bibliographic collections and reference lists. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ C4O – CITATION COUNTING AND CONTEXT CHARACTERIZATION ONTOLOGY
C4O, the Citation Counting and Context Characterization Ontology, is an ontology for characterizing the number and contexts of bibliographic citations. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ PSO – PUBLISHING STATUS ONTOLOGY
PSO, the Publishing Status Ontology, is an ontology for describing the status held by a bibliographic document or other publication entity at each of the various stages in the publishing process. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ PRO – PUBLISHING ROLES ONTOLOGY
PRO, the Publishing Roles Ontology, is an ontology for describing the role(s) in the publication process of a particular agent over a defined period of time. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ PWO – PUBLISHING WORKFLOW ONTOLOGY
PWO, the Publishing Workflow Ontology, is an ontology for describing the workflow associated with the publication of a document. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (further information on the SPAR suite can be found here).

/ BIBO – THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC ONTOLOGY
The Bibliographic Ontology describes bibliographic things on the Semantic Web in RDF. It can be used as a citation ontology, as a document classification ontology, or simply as a way to describe any kind of document in RDF. It has been inspired by existing document description metadata formats.

/ ATOM ACTIVITY STREAMS RDF MAPPING
The Activity Streams Atom extensions format is work to create extensions to Atom to represent the kinds of activities that occur in social networking sites and applications such as Facebook and MySpace. To that end, it is particularly interesting for educational applications which take advantage of social networking features. A mapping from that work to RDF was provided by Michele Minno, Davide Palmisano and Libby Miller.

/ MEDUCATOR EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE SCHEMA
The mEducator project provided an RDF schema for educational resources which is a available via from http://purl.org/meducator/ns/. A growing data set of resources described based on this schema is available here.

/ RDF BINDING IEEE LOM
An RDF binding for IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) was proposed here.

/ ASSET DESCRIPTION METADATA SCHEMA (ADMS)
The Asset Description Metadata Schema (ADMS) is a common RDF vocabulary to describe semantic interoperability assets. It provides a common metadata schema to describe assets (Web resources of any kind) as well as the repositories they originate from. ADMS is not specifically intended for educational purposes but tackles issues of high relevance, for instance, the area of Open Educational Resources..